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|April 2004||Volume 4, Number 4|
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Professor of Mathematics / Department of Mathematics / California State University-Los Angeles William L. Brown, Ph.D. /
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Associate Professor / Department of Mathematics / University of Maryland-College Park Edwin J. Delattre, Ph.D. /
Professor / College of Arts & Sciences / Professor & Dean Emeritus / School of Education / Boston University Benjamin F. Eller, Ed.D. /
School of Education / Western Carolina University Lucien Ellington, Ed. D. /
Professor & Co-director, Asia Program / College of Education and Applied Prof. Services / University of Tennessee at Chattanooga John Eshleman, Ed.D. /
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Director-Special Projects / Curriculum & Instruction / Tennessee Department of Education Patrick Groff, Ed.D. /
Professor of Education Emeritus / San Diego State University Bonnie Grossen, Ph.D. /
Professor, College of Education / University of Oregon Richard Gruetzemacher, Ed.D. /
Director / Planning, Evaluation, and Institutional Research / University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Mark Y. Herring, Ed. D. /
Professor & Dean of Libraries / Winthrop University
Gentleman’s 'A' "
By David N. Figlio, University of Florida
Maurice E. Lucas, Alachua County Schools
Education Next, Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 2004. p. 60-68.
This study found that students taught by tough-grading teachers learn more in school. Unfortunately, it also found that parents have a more favorable view of teachers who are easy-graders.
Author David N. Figlio is a professor of economics at the University of Florida and author Maurice E. Lucas is Director of Research and Assessment for the Alachua County, Florida (Gainesville) public schools. Their study examined the grades assigned by Alachua County’s third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers.
To date, few empirical studies link the grading patterns of individual teachers to student achievement. Alachua County was an ideal site for such an investigation because its students take both the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS).
The ITBS is a nationally normed achievement test and the FCAT is designed to determine how well students have achieved Florida’s “Sunshine State Standards.” Figlio and Lucas used FCAT scores to determine the accuracy of the student grades assigned by teachers. They used ITBS scores to compare local student achievement to national norms.
There was a substantial discrepancy between the absolute level of the grades and the FCAT scores. Only 9% of the students who were awarded A’s actually performed at the A level (a score of 5) on the FCAT. Only 50% of the A students performed at the 4 or 5 level on the FCAT and 17% failed to achieve minimum competency (a score of 3 or above).
Importantly, there were substantial differences among teachers in the accuracy of their reported grades. Some assigned grades that closely corresponded to students’ FCAT scores. They were classified as “tough” graders. The others were classified as “moderate” or “easy.”
Sixty-five percent of students receiving an A from a tough grader earned an FCAT score of 4 or 5, i.e., the equivalent of A or B. Only 5% of the tough graders’ A students attained an FCAT score of 1 or 2. By contrast, only 28% of students earning an A from an easy grader earned an FCAT score of 4 or 5 and 32% of them earned only a 1 or 2.
Benefit of Tougher Grading
The students who benefited most from tough grading tended to be above-average individuals in classes where overall average achievement levels were low. Also, below-average students benefited from tough grading when they were assigned to classes in which overall achievement was high.
Who Were the Tough Graders
Tough-grading teachers were generally more experienced, holders of master’s degrees, and slightly less likely to have attended a selective undergraduate institution. And they tended to retain their grading standards over time. Few teachers became easier or tougher from year to year, even when they taught classes of higher or lower ability students.
Why Tough Grading Works
Why it is Tough to be a Tough-Grading Teacher
Apparently, parents looked at their child’s lower grades and greater need for help, and reasoned that the teacher could be doing a better job. By contrast, the higher grades assigned by easy graders may have created the opposite impression. Parents would have assumed that their children were learning well and effortlessly, and that their teacher was doing an excellent job.
Parents trust teachers; and, in any case, few parents would have the knowledge, expertise, or inclination to question a favorable report card. For decades, public polling has indicated that many parents are skeptical about the quality of public education but most are convinced that their child has a good teacher and a good school. Inflated grades may be the reason.
Many factors encourage teachers to assign inflated grades. In addition to maintaining a positive image, inflated grades sidestep parent and student disappointment as well as the need to revise instruction. Teachers know that low grades are far more likely to elicit criticism than high ones.
In truth, inflated grades avoid short-term discomfort at the risk of long-term failure. Like an inaccurate medical report, they can mask a problem until it is untreatable. With so much at stake, it would seem that all states and school districts need to examine this issue.
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Daniel Hursh, Ph.D. /
Professor of Educational Psychology / College of Human Resources & Education / West Virginia University Carol Jago, M.A. /
English Teacher, Santa Monica High School / Director, California Reading & Literature Project / UCLA Jerry Jesness, M.A. /
ESL Teacher & Author / Los Fresnos (TX) Schools Daniel Konieczko, M.Ed. /
Science Teacher, Brunswick High School / Brunswick, ME Martin Kozloff, Ph.D. /
Watson Distinguished Professor / School of Education / University of North Carolina at Wilmington Rob Kremer, M.B.A. /
President / Oregon Education Coalition Elaine K. McEwan-Adkins, Ed.D. /
Author & Consultant / McEwan-Adkins Group Richard P. Phelps, Ph.D. /
Economist & Author Michael Podgursky, Ph.D. /
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Associate Professor / College of Education / University of Tennessee at Chattanooga / Member, Tenessee Board of Education Douglas Sears, Ph.D. /
Professor & Dean / School of Education / Boston University Mark C. Schug, Ph.D. /
Professor & Director / Center for Economic Education / University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Lewis Solmon, Ph.D. /
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